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  • Effect of Sulfur on the Reduction of Ilmenite by Syngas in ...

    The oxidation of ilmenite after it was reduced in sulfur-containing syngas showed an initial brief period of mass gain before a period of mass loss, which was followed by another period of mass gain typical of ilmenite oxidation. These initial mass gains and mass losses were attributed to the reactions between the sulfur deposit and air.

  • Author: Yewen Tan, Zhenkun Sun, Arturo Cabello, Dennis Y. Lu, Robin W. Hughes
  • Kinetics of redox reactions of ilmenite for chemical ...

    Feb 15, 2011  Oxidation of ilmenite to pseudobrookite (Fe 2 TiO 5) also has been suggested as a pre-treatment before subsequent reduction because it has been found that reduction of ilmenite is enhanced by the pre-oxidation of ilmenite (Park and Ostrovski, 2004, Sun et al., 1993, Zhang and Ostrovski, 2002).

  • Cited by: 242
  • Effect of Sulfur on the Reduction of Ilmenite by Syngas in ...

    For ilmenite oxidation, the mass change curves display a distinct peak followed by a valley when the sample was previously reduced in the presence of H2S, indicating reactions between the sulfur ...

  • Oxidation and Reduction of Iron-Titanium Oxides in ...

    following the oxidation of FeTiO 3 (ilmenite) in air. The subsequent reduction of Fe 2 TiO 5 at oxygen partial pressures of 10–15.5 atm stabilizes Fe 1.02 Ti 0.98 O 3, a solid solution of ilmenite. Further reduction will produce metallic iron, which compromises the integrity of the oxygen carrier for chemical looping processes.

  • (PDF) Influence of Pre-oxidation on Carbothermic Reduction ...

    The ilmenite concentrates contained different concentrations of TiO2 (55.6-71.5wt%) and iron oxide (Fetotal 14.5-28.2wt%).In the reduction of ilmenite by hydrogen, during ramping reduction ...

  • Ilmenite oxidation kinetics for pressurized chemical ...

    Ilmenite oxidation was incomplete below 800 °C, while sintering occurred above 900 °C. • At O 2 partial pressure of 1.68 bar, cracks were observed throughout the particles.. At O 2 partial pressures below 0.6 bar, the ilmenite reactivity decreased.. Total pressure, at constant O 2 partial pressure, had a negative effect on reactivity.. Oxidation kinetics at 8 bar modelled using a two-step ...

  • Oxidation of Indian Ilmenite: Thermodynamics and Kinetics ...

    In the oxidation process, the FeO present in the ilmenite reacts with oxygen in air and forms hematite or pseudobrookite depending on the oxygen partial pressure and reaction temperature (Gupta et al. 1989). The pre oxidation of ilmenite improves the reduction reaction of ilmenite and also helps disproportionation of iron oxide from TiO2 lattice.

  • Kinetics the Oxidation and Reduction of Synthetic llmenite ...

    the oxidation and reduction of ilmenitel) and even changes the reaction mechanism,2) therefore, it is very important to study the kinetics of the oxidation and reduction with pure ilmenite. The purpose of this paper is to study thermogravi-metrically the kinetics of the oxidation and reduction of ilmenite in the light of kinetic theory for ...

  • Ilmenite Activation during Consecutive Redox Cycles in ...

    Jan 07, 2010  Ilmenite, a natural mineral composed of FeTiO3, is a low-cost and promising oxygen carrier (OC) for solid fuels combustion in a chemical-looping combustion (CLC) system. The aim of this study is to analyze the behavior of ilmenite as an OC in CLC and the changes in its properties through redox cycles. Experiments consisting of reduction−oxidation cycles in a thermogravimetric analyzer

  • The Austpac ERMS and EARS Processes for the manufacture of ...

    Oxidation / reduction roasting as developed by Austpac employs operating temperatures of over 1000°C, with a total residence time of between 2 and 3 hours. The reduction stage is controlled to ... Reduced ilmenite is magnetically enhanced, so most of the remaining gangue and fine char

  • Reduction behaviour of Odisha Sands Complex, India ...

    11 小时前  Presently, ilmenite concentrates from Odisha Sands Complex at Chhatrapur, India are utilized to produce TiO2 slag by direct smelting in an electric arc furnace. However, the process involves the consumption of excess electrical energy and difficulty in handling the arc furnace due to frothing effects. A more efficient process of pre-reducing the ilmenite before smelting has been proposed in ...

  • Reduction and Oxidation Behavior of Ilmenite for Chemical ...

    Ilmenite thermally treated at high temperature was used as the oxygen carrier, its oxygen transfer capacity during reduction and oxidation at 850 °C was analyzed by TGA analysis and using a fixed-bed reactor system. Air was used as oxidizing gas, and 12 vol% H 2 was used as reducing gas. Non-thermally treated ilmenite had low oxygen transfer ...

  • Kinetics the Oxidation and Reduction of Synthetic llmenite ...

    the oxidation and reduction of ilmenitel) and even changes the reaction mechanism,2) therefore, it is very important to study the kinetics of the oxidation and reduction with pure ilmenite. The purpose of this paper is to study thermogravi-metrically the kinetics of the oxidation and reduction of ilmenite in the light of kinetic theory for ...

  • Titanium Dioxide Recovery from Ilmenite Contained in ...

    The oxidation at 900 °C for 3 h yielded a content of 1 1% of TiO 2 , and the highest oxidation of ilmenite (82%) was achieved at 1, 000 °C for 1 h. The carbothermic reduction with 15wt% carbon at

  • E ffects of mechanical activation and oxidation­ reduction on

    In the present work, the oxidation and reduction of Panxi ilmenite concentration were investigated, and the effects of mechanical activation on hydrochloric acid leaching b ehavior of untreated ilmenite concentration and oxidized­ reduced ilmenite concentration were also investigated.

  • KINETICS OF REDOX REACTIONS OF ILMENITE FOR

    The objective of this study was to establish the kinetic of both reduction and oxidation reactions taking place in the Chemical-Looping Combustion (CLC) process using ilmenite as oxygen carrier. Because of the beneficial of the use of pre-oxidized ilmenite and the activation of the ilmenite during the redox cycles, both the reactivity of pre-

  • Ilmenite Reduction Studies Using charcoal and Petroleum ...

    reduction of titanium from +4 oxidation state to +3 oxidation state occurs above 1000°C with reduced atmosphere. Hence, 900°C is taken as the optimum condition for the reduction studies. 3.3. Reduction Efficiency with 20Time The reduction efficiency of ilmenite with varying the reduction time (5 min-30 min) is given in Table 7.

  • The Austpac ERMS and EARS Processes for the manufacture of ...

    Oxidation / reduction roasting as developed by Austpac employs operating temperatures of over 1000°C, with a total residence time of between 2 and 3 hours. The reduction stage is controlled to ... Reduced ilmenite is magnetically enhanced, so most of the remaining gangue and fine char

  • Reduction Extraction Kinetics of Titania and Iron from an ...

    menite ore by oxidation and magnetic separation in the mi-crowave irradiation. Furthermore, many studies on the re- ... mass produced by the reduction of ilmenite by hydrogen, according to reactions (1) and (2), and Table 1. If iron ox-ides were reduced completely, w is calculated to be 0.1044w 0

  • Up-grading of natural ilmenite ore by combining oxidation ...

    Jul 11, 2018  Rutile (TiO2) is heavily used in pigments and colorants, and the most abundant source of rutile is ilmenite. Upon oxidation of ilmenite, rutile can be formed with modest energy consumption; furthermore, after leaching, only a few byproducts are formed. Unfortunately, one drawback is the necessarily long oxidative process of typically used methods.

  • MODELING AND SIMULATION PRE-REDUCTION OF

    The Fe-Ti-0 system has multiple possible phases. Those relevant to oxidation and reduction of ilmenite are indicated in figure 3. 0 Fe Figure 3: Fe-Ti-0 system The thirteenth International Ferroalloys Congress Efficient technologies in ferroalloy industry 861 Ti June 9 - 13, 2013 Almaty, Kazakhstan

  • WEI LI CARBOTHERMIC REDUCTION KINETICS OF ILMENITE ...

    reduction of ilmenite to form TiO2 and elemental iron followed by a leach to remove the iron. The reduction ... ilmenite ore by oxidation and magnetic separation followed by leaching with diluted acid [32]. Kelly and Rowson investigated microwave reduction of oxidized

  • Genesis of oxidized- and reduced-type granites Economic ...

    The genesis of oxidized-type (magnetite series) and reduced-type (ilmenite series) granites is discussed on the basis of thermodynamic considerations. We show that SO 2 in the magma can oxidize augite to form magnetite with decreasing temperature because the SO 2 -H 2 S buffer line intersects with the augite-magnetite-quartz buffer line on a 1 ...

  • Ilmenite Reduction - Lunarpedia

    Hydrogen reduction is one method currently being tested by many Universities. Products of hydrogen reduction are free iron, titanium dioxide (TiO 2), and water, which is split to recover the hydrogen and produce oxygen.. The basic process is to separate ilmenite from lunar soil, crush it to a fine powder to maximize the surface area, and then heat it in an enclosed reaction vessel in the ...

  • Reduction and Oxidation Behavior of Ilmenite for Chemical ...

    Ilmenite thermally treated at high temperature was used as the oxygen carrier, its oxygen transfer capacity during reduction and oxidation at 850 °C was analyzed by TGA analysis and using a fixed-bed reactor system. Air was used as oxidizing gas, and 12 vol% H 2 was used as reducing gas. Non-thermally treated ilmenite had low oxygen transfer ...

  • The reduction of ilmenite with carbon - Wouterlood - 1979 ...

    The reduction of natural and pre‐oxidised ilmenite with carbon at temperatures between 1173 and 1473 K (900–1200°C) was studied. The reaction was carried out in the atmosphere produced by the gaseous reaction products and the degree of reduction was determined from the CO and CO 2 contents of the product gas, as measured by chemical absorption and continuous infrared analysis.

  • Ilmenite Reduction Studies Using charcoal and Petroleum ...

    reduction of titanium from +4 oxidation state to +3 oxidation state occurs above 1000°C with reduced atmosphere. Hence, 900°C is taken as the optimum condition for the reduction studies. 3.3. Reduction Efficiency with 20Time The reduction efficiency of ilmenite with varying the reduction time (5 min-30 min) is given in Table 7.

  • E ffects of mechanical activation and oxidation­ reduction on

    In the present work, the oxidation and reduction of Panxi ilmenite concentration were investigated, and the effects of mechanical activation on hydrochloric acid leaching b ehavior of untreated ilmenite concentration and oxidized­ reduced ilmenite concentration were also investigated.

  • Ilmenite Reduction - Lunarpedia

    Hydrogen reduction is one method currently being tested by many Universities. Products of hydrogen reduction are free iron, titanium dioxide (TiO 2), and water, which is split to recover the hydrogen and produce oxygen.. The basic process is to separate ilmenite from lunar soil, crush it to a fine powder to maximize the surface area, and then heat it in an enclosed reaction vessel in the ...

  • High Temperature Interaction Between H2O and Hydrothermal ...

    The interaction between water and reduced ilmenite samples as produced in a hydrothermal reduction process has been investigated at temperature of 1070 and 1223 K utilizing a Ugine-Setaram Thermobalance coupled with a mass-spectrometer. The experimental data show that the process of oxidation of reduced ilmenite is feasible at high temperature giving rise to the formation of FeO and

  • MODELING AND SIMULATION PRE-REDUCTION OF

    The Fe-Ti-0 system has multiple possible phases. Those relevant to oxidation and reduction of ilmenite are indicated in figure 3. 0 Fe Figure 3: Fe-Ti-0 system The thirteenth International Ferroalloys Congress Efficient technologies in ferroalloy industry 861 Ti June 9 - 13, 2013 Almaty, Kazakhstan

  • EFFECT OF OXIDATION ROASTING ON ILMENITE FLOTATION

    The results indicated that after the oxidation roasting up to 600 °C, the flotation behavior of ilmenite was greatly improved across a wide pH range. The maximum increase in ilmenite flotation recovery was about 50% at pH values ranging from 4.0 to 4.5. After the roasting of ilmenite at 600 °C, ilmenite was floated with a recovery of 91% at ...

  • Enhancement Reduction of Panzhihua Ilmenite Concentrate ...

    Wei Lv, Yingyi Zhang, Gangqiang Fan, Kai Tang and Xuewei Lv, Effects of Pre-oxidation and Additive on Carbothermic Reduction of Ilmenite Concentrate, 8th International Symposium on High-Temperature Metallurgical Processing, 10.1007/978-3-319-51340-9_68, (703-712), (2017).

  • What is the Difference Between Oxidation and Reduction?

    Oct 02, 2019  Oxidation and reduction are two types of chemical reactions that often work together.Oxidation and reduction reactions involve an exchange of electrons between reactants. For many students, the confusion occurs when attempting to identify which reactant was oxidized and which reactant was reduced.

  • A STRUCTURAL MODEL FOR THE RUSTING OF REDUCED

    the rusting step the reduced ilmenite is subjected to oxidation by suspending it in NH4Cl solution followed by aeration when the iron oxide comes out, which can be separated. The major disadvantage of the above process is that the rusting is most time consuming

  • MURSO PROCESS FOR PRODUCING RUTILE SUBSTITUTE H.N.

    ilmenite in 20% HCl at lOS0 c is much slower than for ilmenite which has a large number of sub-grains. The "synthetic ilmenite" structure is produced through the steps of oxidation and reduction. Figure 2 shows the micro­ structure of ilmenite at different stages of treatment. Thus

  • High Temperature Interaction Between H2O and Hydrothermal ...

    The interaction between water and reduced ilmenite samples as produced in a hydrothermal reduction process has been investigated at temperature of 1070 and 1223 K utilizing a Ugine‐Setaram Thermobalance coupled with a mass‐spectrometer. The experimental data show that the process of oxidation of reduced ilmenite is feasible at high temperature giving rise to the formation of FeO and

  • Ilmente Upgrading by the Murso Process - Helals

    Both oxidation and reduction steps affect the grade of the product and a high grade (³ 95%) TiO 2 is to result. Oxidation is an exothermic reaction as shown below : Temperature of Oxidation. Although the oxidation of ilmenite starts at temperatures as low as 250 o C, ...

  • Enhancement Reduction of Panzhihua Ilmenite Concentrate ...

    Wei Lv, Yingyi Zhang, Gangqiang Fan, Kai Tang and Xuewei Lv, Effects of Pre-oxidation and Additive on Carbothermic Reduction of Ilmenite Concentrate, 8th International Symposium on High-Temperature Metallurgical Processing, 10.1007/978-3-319-51340-9_68, (703-712), (2017).

  • The reduction of ilmenite with carbon - Wouterlood - 1979 ...

    The reduction of natural and pre‐oxidised ilmenite with carbon at temperatures between 1173 and 1473 K (900–1200°C) was studied. The reaction was carried out in the atmosphere produced by the gaseous reaction products and the degree of reduction was determined from the CO and CO 2 contents of the product gas, as measured by chemical absorption and continuous infrared analysis.

  • Study on the mechanochemical oxidation of ilmenite - PDF ...

    The upgrading of ilmenite from SRI lanka by the oxidation-reduction-leach process Kinetic study on bastnaesite concentrate mechanochemical decomposition in NaOH solution Effect of mechanical activation on the dissolution of Panzhihua ilmenite

  • High Temperature Interaction Between H2O and Hydrothermal ...

    The interaction between water and reduced ilmenite samples as produced in a hydrothermal reduction process has been investigated at temperature of 1070 and 1223 K utilizing a Ugine‐Setaram Thermobalance coupled with a mass‐spectrometer. The experimental data show that the process of oxidation of reduced ilmenite is feasible at high temperature giving rise to the formation of FeO and

  • Ilmente Upgrading by the Murso Process

    Both oxidation and reduction steps affect the grade of the product and a high grade (³ 95%) TiO 2 is to result. Oxidation is an exothermic reaction as shown below : Temperature of Oxidation. Although the oxidation of ilmenite starts at temperatures as low as 250 o C, ...

  • US3734996A - Preparation of titanium dioxide concentrates ...

    ilmenite, preferably after pre-oxidation, is reduced to convert iron oxide contained therein to iron, the illmenite is treated with nitrobenzene at about 20 to 100*c. and a ph of 3 to 7 oxidize the iron to iron oxide pigment which can be seprated in relatively pure form from the titanium dioxide concentrate. the concentrate is then preferably leached with acid to remove residual iron ...

  • Ilmenite Chlorination - Metallurgist Mineral Processing ...

    The ilmenite conversion process has been broken down into three general unit operations¬-reduction, smelting, and leaching—as shown in figures 8, 9, and 10. To see what actual flow-rates and energy requirements may be expected in a production plant, material and energy balance data from the 4.5- to 9.1-kg/h pilot plant were scaled to a basis ...

  • An Electrochemical Study of the Reduction and Dissolution ...

    For pure ilmenite, FeII release does not involve a redox reaction. However, reductive dissolution can occur if ilmenite forms partial solid solutions with hematite. The anodic oxidation of ilmenite results in formation of passivating surface oxidation products (most likely pseudorutile).

  • Studies on the upgrading of Indian ilmenites to synthetic ...

    reduction of ilmenite is possible with coke at 800°e. Shomate et al. 7 carried out a thermodynami c study of reduction of ilmenite by carbon, carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Yijay et ai.8 studied pre-oxidation and hydrogen reduction of ilmenite in a fluidized bed reactor. In a kinetic study on the reduction of ilmenite

  • Upper mantle oxidation state: Evidence from olivine ...

    Oxygen fugacities of olivine‐orthopyroxene‐ilmenite‐bearing, high‐pressure megacrysts, mineral intergrowths, and peridotites from kimberlites and from a minette have been calculated from the equilibrium 2Fe 2 O 3 + 4FeSiO 3 = 8FeSi 0.5 O 2 + O 2.Resultant fO 2 's, which are interpreted to reflect the subcontinental source regions of alkalic magmas, are clustered between the quartz ...

  • Kinetics of Carbothermic Reduction of Ilmenite

    Thermal oxidation of commercial ilmenite concentrate from Kahnouj titanium mines, Iran, at 500-950 °C was investigated for the first time. Fractional conversion was calculated from mass change of the samples during oxidation. Maximum FeO to FeO conversion of 98.63 % occurred at 900 °C...

  • WO1990004656A1 - Refining of ilmenite by removal of excess ...

    The presence of chromite in significant amount in ilmenite downgrades the market value of the ilmenite. A substantial amount of the chromite may be removed, firstly by a reduction step, secondly by a leaching, aeration or oxidation roasting step and finally by a physical separation step. An optional preoxidation may precede the reduction step and an optional physical separation step may be ...

  • v117n5a2 Solid-state reduction of an ilmenite concentrate ...

    reduction sequence of ilmenite by carbon; in particular, to define the reduction stage during which the majority of the iron oxide is reduced to the alloy phase before any significant reduction of the titanium oxide in the solid state. The relative (preferential) reduction of iron oxides over titanium oxides becomes important (Pistorius, 2002).

  • Experimental evidence for the exsolution of ilmenite from ...

    The rims and lamellae of spinel around and within ilmenite in the type-III samples result from the combination of Exchange 1 and the well-known substitution Fe 2+ + Ti 4+ = 2Fe 3+. These experimental results show that natural spinel + ilmenite microintergrowths do not always result from either an oxidation or a reduction process.